- The kidneys are the most common organ in the body to develop cysts and occur in 50% of the population older than 50.
- A simple cyst may be single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral and can range from a few mm to several cm in diameter.
- Most simple cysts are found incidentally on ultrasound or renal imaging studies are asymptomatic and require no treatment.
- Occasionally large cysts may cause pain due to cyst wall distention, intra-cystic bleeding or obstruction of the collecting system and require treatment.
Treatment options for symptomatic simple renal cysts:
- Open surgery may include nephrectomy, decortication or marsupialization of the cyst.
- Laparoscopic cyst ablation – transabdominal or retroperitoneal approach.
- Only lesions that meet the ultrasound or CT criteria for simple cysts should be approached laparoscopically. There could be a small chance of malignancy therefore the cyst wall should be inspected for tumour and sent for histology. Tumour seeding is a potential disadvantage.
- Percutaneous aspiration